Vitamin D Carries Minimal Association with Treatment-Resistant or Atypical Depression

Vitamin D G 966728568 — Emotional Well-being, Mental Health, Psychiatrists, Psychologists

Vitamin D showed weak association with remedy-resistant depression (TRD) and atypical depression (AD), researchers located in a study published in Translational Psychiatry.

Researchers utilized phenotype and genotype information from the UK Biobank potential cohort study. They performed a stick to-up with 157,366 people of the cohort. Those people completed the on the web Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ).

The researchers integrated sex, age, smoking status, the Townsend deprivation index (TDI), body mass index (BMI), ethnicity (white/nonwhite), alcohol consumption frequency, and season of blood draw as covariates in their analyses.

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They utilized logistic regression to establish no matter if vitamin D and subtypes of depression have been linked and completed case evaluation in observational evaluation of every single depression subtype, excluding people with missing information. Logistic regression enabled polygenic threat score evaluation (PRS). Control people integrated in the study did not satisfy criteria for TRD (at least 2 diagnostic codes for unipolar depressive disorder and at least 2 switches amongst antidepressant drugs that had been prescribed for at least 6 weeks). Those handle people integrated patients with important depressive disorder (MDD).

In observational evaluation, greater vitamin D levels have been connected with a slight reduce in threat of AD compared with people who probably had MDD (AOR .93). Vitamin D slightly decreased threat of AD in the base model immediately after adjustment for covariates (AOR .92). Observational evaluation did not show this connection for serum vitamin D and threat of TRD compared with patients with probable MDD.

Vitamin D PRS was not linked with prevalent TRD (n=1891 OR 1.01) or AD (n=2101 OR 1.04), according to PRS genetic evaluation and 2-sample Mendelian randomization evaluation (MR).

The study listed numerous limitations such as that estimates of statistical energy in the MR may well be inflated due to overfitting and winner’s curse considering that the variance explained by the vitamin D SNPs was calculated from the identical population employed for the discovery evaluation (GWAS) and may well for that reason be greater than if calculated in an external sample.

“Our comprehensive investigations indicated some evidence of an association between vitamin D and TRD/AD observationally, but little evidence of association when using PRS and MR, mirroring findings of genetic studies of vitamin D on broad depression phenotypes,” the researchers mentioned.

“Results do not support further clinical trials of vitamin D in these MDD subtypes but do not rule out that small effects may exist that require larger samples to detect.”

Disclosure: Some study authors declared affiliations with biotech, pharmaceutical, and/or device businesses. Please see the original reference for a complete list of authors’ disclosures.


Arathimos R, Ronaldson A, Howe LJ, et al. Vitamin D and the risk of treatment-resistant and atypical depression: a Mendelian randomization. Transl Psychiatry. Published on the web November 4, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41398-021-01674-3

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